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This should be a tremendously exciting chapter. We see the blessing of God operating in super abundant fashion. We see God’s program reaching a tremendous climax as David reigns victorious over all of his enemies from his throne in Jerusalem. We still see chinks in David’s walk with God (as he unwisely continues the monarch’s political tradition of multiplying wives); but overall his life is characterized as enjoying the fruits of blessing by virtue of the Lord God of hosts being with him and directing his steps. Life doesn’t get much better than what we see in this chapter. This is all about victorious living in the center of God’s will for the sake of God’s glory.

Look back at the promises of God and all of the difficulties and obstacles that had to be overcome to reach this pinnacle of success. It had not been an easy road for the nation of Israel to rise to such a place of prominence on the world scene.

Look forward to the Millennial Kingdom when the kingdom of David will soar to new heights under the reign of the Messiah from the same throne in Jerusalem.


(not accomplished by selfish ambition on David’s part)

A. (:1-2) Three Reasons the King Deserves Our Total Allegiance (spending a lot of time in this section)


– cf. Significance of historical context with David

– cf. our allegiance to Christ as the Lord of our life

– cf. our allegiance to the elders in our local church

1. (:1) He’s One of Us — Family Solidarity Reasserts Itself

“Then all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron and said, ‘Behold, we are your bone and your flesh.’”

– Significance of historical context with David

Coming out of context of civil war

– Application to Christ as our Lord

Truth of the Incarnation – Word became flesh

High priest that can sympathisize with our weakness

Mediator that is perfect man and truly God – can represent us

Intercede for us

Do we really believe this?

– Application to local church elders

Not some hired gun that will run away when the flock is in


Choose from among yourselves …

2. (:2a) He’s Our Proven Leader — Past Faithfulness in Leadership and Service Remembered

“Previously, when Saul was king over us, you were the one who led Israel out and in.”

– Significance of historical context with David

– Application to Christ as our Lord

– Application to local church elders

From the time that David had killed Goliath – led them even when Saul was on the throne; God used David mightily; “Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands” 1 Sam. 18:7 — people looked to David for defense and victory over the Philistines; 1 Sam. 18:14 “David was prospering in all his ways for the Lord was with him” –people came to him for justice even when in exile — 1 Sam. 22:1-2; being an elder does not come from having an official title slapped on you … but from faithfully doing the work of the ministry

Who is your leader? Whom do you respect and follow?

3. (:2b) He’s God’s Choice — Former Promises Remembered

“And the Lord said to you, ‘You will shepherd My people Israel, and you will be a ruler over Israel.’”

– Significance of historical context with David

– Application to Christ as our Lord

– Application to local church elders

They saw that David was God’s choice to lead them as a people – this was by divine direction

Jonathan understood that David would be king – gave him a robe to wear 1 Sam. 18:4 = his own robe as heir to the throne; sign of deference; 1 Sam. 23:17; Saul knew it as well; Abigail (Nabal’s wife) 1 Sam. 25:30 – she understood the promises

Blaikie: Why, if this was the command of God, had they been so long of carrying it out? Ought not effect to have been given to it at the very first, independent of all other reasons whatsoever? The elders cannot but give it a place among their reasons for offering him the throne; but it is added to the others as if they needed to be supplemented before effect could be given to it. The elders did not show that supreme regard to the will of God which ought ever to be the first consideration in every loyal heart.

B. (:3) Covenant Commitment and Majestic Coronation

1. Covenant Commitment

“So all the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron, and King David made a covenant with them before the Lord at Hebron”

Look at parallel passage in 1 Chron. 12:23-40 – large assembly – not just a few representatives – 350,000 total from all of these tribes; Samuel just referring to the leading elders; but the armies come as well; this account fills in some of the details; huge celebration

Emphasis on unity; oneness of mind and heart; no wavering in their commitment

2. Majestic Coronation

“then they anointed David king over Israel”

This was David’s third anointing. Recognizing what God had established.

C. (:4-5) Forty Year Reign

“David was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned forty years. At Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah.”

Long reign over united kingdom – in contrast to later divided monarchy


Why did David need a new capital?

The Jebusites are first named in Genesis 10:15-16, where we are told that they are truly Canaanites, the descendants of Canaan, the third son of Ham (Genesis 10:6). It was this Canaan who saw the nakedness of Noah (Genesis 9:22), and who brought a curse upon himself and his descendants (Genesis 9:25).

Joshua 15:63 – Jebusites had maintained control; could not be driven out; now David is going to conquer this city; it will become the city of David; 1 Chron. 11: 4-9

Judah was successful in defeating the Jebusites on one occasion, but was not able to occupy or control the site permanently (Judg. 1:8-9). The Benjaminites were also unsuccessful in an attempt to take the city on a permanent basis (cf. Judg. 1:21 with 19:11-12).

Look at background from Gen. 14:18; Ps 76:2 identifies Salem as another name for Jerusalem – Melchizedek as a type of Christ

In the next chapter, Jerusalem will become the dwelling place of God, as the ark of the covenant is brought to the city, where Solomon will later build the temple.

A. (:6-10) The Blessing of God Accomplishes the Impossible –

David Captures Jerusalem – the stronghold of Zion — the City of David

1. (:6) Feeling of Invincibility on the part of Jebusites in Jerusalem

“Now the king and his men went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, and they said to David, ‘You shall not come in here, but the blind and lame shall turn you away’; thinking, ‘David cannot enter here’.”

Gordon: David’s personal army involved

2. (:7) Impressive Capture of Jerusalem

“Nevertheless, David captured the stronghold of Zion, that is the city of David.”

Ryrie: David established his capital in neutral territory between Israel and Judah. Jerusalem was an excellent fortress city, for it was naturally defensible o the S., E., and W. (due to valleys) and had a good water supply, the Gihon spring.

3. (:8) Sarcastic Response to Taunting of Jebusites

“And David said on that day, ‘Whoever would strike the Jebusites, let him reach the lame and the blind, who are hated by David’s soul, through the water tunnel.’ Therefore they say, ‘The blind or the lame shall not come into the house.’”

4. (:9) Taking Control of the Territory (Fortifying it)

“So David lived in the stronghold, and called it the city of David. And David built all around from the Millow and inward.”

Bergen: David did much to build up Israel’s new capital city. He added fortifications, increased the hill-top city’s usable building area by constructing sturdy terraces around the edge of the settlement, and built a palace with assistance from Hiram, king of Tyre.

5. (:10) Key = The Blessing of God

“And David became greater and greater, for the Lord God of hosts was with him.”

(Use of Commentaries) Blaikie: The personal affection for David and his heroes which would thus be formed must have been very warm, nay, even enthusiastic. In the case of David, whatever may have been true of the others, all the influence thus acquired was employed for the welfare of the nation and the glory of God. The supreme desire of his heart was that the people might give all the glory to Jehovah, and derive from these brilliant successes fresh assurances how faithful God was to His promises to Israel. Alike as a man of piety and a man of patriotism, he made this his aim. Knowing as he did what was due to God, and animated by a profound desire to render to God His due, he would have been horrified had he intercepted in his own person aught of the honour and glory which were His. But for the people’s sake also, as a man of patriotism, his desire was equally strong that God should have all the glory. What were military successes however brilliant to the nation, or a reputation however eminent, compared to their enjoying the favour and friendship of God? Success – how ephemeral it was; reputation – as transient as the glow of a cloud beside the setting sun; but God’s favour and gracious presence with the nation was a perpetual treasure, enlivening, healing, strengthening, guiding for evermore. “Happy is that people that is in such a case; yea, happy is that people whose God is the Lord.”

B. (:11-12) The Blessing of God Brings Worldwide Honor – King of Tyre Builds Majestic House for David

1. (:11) Foreign Support

“Then Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David with cedar trees and carpenters and stonemasons; and they built a house for David.”

That was a political and economic move for Hiram. He could profit from trade with Israel and was especially in need of Israel’s grain (cf. I Kings 5:11; Acts 12:20).

2. (:12) Maintaining Perspective – God Providentially Establishing His Kingdom

“And David realized that the Lord had established him as king over Israel, and that He had exalted his kingdom for the sake of His people Israel.”

Contrast the demeanor of King Nebuchadnezzer in Daniel 4:28-37

Psalm 87 – Insights from the Psalms – significance of the City of David


A. (:13) Besetting Family Sins

1. Multiplication of Concubines and Wives

“Meanwhile David took more concubines and wives from Jerusalem, after he came from Hebron”

2. Multiplication of Offspring

“and more sons and daughters were born to David.”

B. (:14-16) Listing of David’s Children Born to Him in Jerusalem


Reign of David was confirmed by God’s blessing and prosperity … but it was immediately challenged as well by God’s enemies

When we submit to Christ as Lord of our life – there will be blessing; there will be attacks

2 Very Different Military Strategies – 1 Very Consistent Result –

A. (:17-21) First Battle Against the Invading Philistines – Frontal Assault

4 Strategies for Being Victorious in the Lord when attacked by enemies:

1. (:17-18) Strengthening Himself in the Lord When Attacked — Philistines Quick to Test the New King

“When the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines went up to seek out David; and when David heard of it, he went down to the stronghold. Now the Philistines came and spread themselves out in the valley of Rephaim.”

2. (:19) Seeking the Lord’s Direction and Blessing = the Key

“Then David inquired of the Lord, saying, ‘Shall I go up against the Philistines? Wilt Thou give them into my hand?’ And the Lord said to David, ‘Go up, for I will certainly give the Philistines into your hand.’”

3. (:20) Stepping Out in Faith and Giving the Lord the Credit

“So David came to Baalperazim, and defeated them there; and he said, ‘The Lord has broken through my enemies before me like the breakthrough of waters.’ Therefore he named that place Baalperazim.”

Ryrie: Lit., the Lord of breaking forth. The image is of flooding waters breaking through a dam, as David’s troops broke through the Philistine assault.

4. (:21) Securing All the Loot from a Total Victory

“And they abandoned their idols there, so David and his men carried them away.”

1 Chron. 14:12 – David ordered these idols burned

B. (:22-25) Second Battle Against the Invading Philistines – Rear Assault (Outflanking the enemy)

Simpson: The spiritual lesson here is very important. God sometimes suffers us to be tempted over again on exactly the same lines, even where we have had complete victory before. It may be the devil wants to surprise us through our very security, as we are less likely to expect him to repeat his attack. It may be that God wants to teach us, as in the present instance, some new lesson. It often is because we have not quite triumphed on this line before, and God is good enough to give us a second opportunity. Let us never be too sure of the subjugation of our Philistine foes, but let us ever watch and be ready.

A New Way – We see the same temptation met in an entirely different way. This was the great lesson that God was seeking to teach David and us also. Our danger is, when a similar experience comes, to go on by the force of habit on the same lines, and thus really be trusting unconsciously in our own experience and wisdom. David was graciously delivered from this. It would have been perfectly natural for him to say, “I have defeated these Philistines here before, and I have only to do as I did then and I shall defeat them again.” But David, with great wisdom and simplicity, went straight to God, as though he had had no experience and possessed no wisdom of his own, and he was rewarded by receiving an entirely different direction.

1. (:22) Persistence of the Enemy

“Now the Philistines came up once again and spread themselves out in the valley of Rephaim.”

2. (:23-24) Providence of God Works in a Variety of Ways

a. Identical Seeking of the Lord’s Direction and Blessing

“And when David inquired of the Lord”

b. Opposite Strategy Commanded

“He said, ‘You shall not go directly up; circle around behind them and come at them in front of the balsam trees.’”

c. Identical Result of Total Victory from the Hand of the Lord

“’And it shall be, when you hear the sound of marching in the tops of the balsam trees, then you shall act promptly, for then the Lord will have gone out before you to strike the army of the Philistines.’ Then David did so, just as the Lord had commanded him, and struck down the Philistines from Geba as far as Gezer.”

Those who received David as God’s king were blessed; those who rejected David as God’s king were crushed.