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We must remember everything said earlier about Paul’s desire to persevere in his Christian life and ministry so as to be a “fellow partaker” of the gospel benefits (9:23) and not to be “disqualified” (9:27). [adokimos is the key determining word in this whole section = “rejected, worthless”] He has salvation in mind in both of those references – consistent with the Calvinistic doctrine of the perseverance of the saints. Some might argue that salvation cannot be in view because that would call into question the doctrine of assurance of salvation. How can you have any confidence of your salvation if you need to wait to see if you persevere to the end? Isn’t that adding an element of works to assurance? But the Book of 1 John teaches that there are multiple tracks of assurance. Someone can have assurance on the basis of their faith as soon as they are saved. But there is also another growing track of assurance that is based on your living out a changed life by the grace of God. Assurance on that track can fluctuate some and we are exhorted to make our calling and election secure. So any objections on those grounds would constitute objections against the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints as well.

The difficulty is that there are multiple tracks of application that grow out of the one thread of interpretation. In 9:24-27 as well as 10:1-13, there are different groups of people listening to this message and needing to make different applications. There are certainly the self-deceived and false professors of Christianity who need to be challenged to move on to genuine repentance and faith so as to not miss out on the blessing of God’s rest (Hebrews 3-4). We know that no one whose life is characterized by idolatry or immorality or unbelief or rebellion can enter into the kingdom of heaven. Yet are we going to argue that all of those who died in the wilderness missed out on salvation? Certainly not! Moses was one of those who died in the wilderness. So there are also the large numbers in the audience Paul is addressing who are genuinely saved and need to be challenged to live a disciplined Christian life to the end, not to abuse their Christian freedoms and liberty in Christ, and to beware lest they fall as well. My point is that we do not want to strip away one of the main threats of the passage which is that it is possible for someone to have all types of intimate contact with spiritual privilege and the best Bible teaching and Christian fellowship and yet still miss out on salvation. We need to drive home that warning while still making the application to Christians of the need for careful and diligent pursuit of holiness.

We need more teaching on the important doctrine of the perseverance of the saints so that we don’t shy away from this truth where it is referenced in the passage. (See doctrinal statement below.) Certainly in our day with the prevalence of “easy believism” and many people who have a false sense of security in their salvation, they need to be shaken from their spiritual lethargy with these challenging words and OT examples.



“For I do not want you to be unaware, brethren”

(Rom. 1:13; 1 Cor. 12:1; 1 Thess. 4:13)

Grosheide: a litotes, which always introduces an important matter.

A. Tremendous Inclusion in Spiritual Privileges

1. (:1) Privilege of Divine Guidance and Deliverance

a. Divine Guidance

“that our fathers were all under the cloud”

Guzik: The cloud of Shekinah glory overshadowed Israel throughout their journey from Egypt to the Promised Land. During the day, the cloud sheltered them from the brutal desert sun, and during the night, it burned as a pillar of fire. It was a constant, ready reminder of God’s glory and presence (Exodus 13:21-22).

b. Divine Deliverance – Tremendous miracles experienced

“and all passed through the sea”

Grosheide: All Israelites enjoyed that favor of God [being led by the pillar]. Even so when they passed through the Red Sea there was no distinction between believers and unbelievers: the entire nation safely reached the other shore.

2. (:2) Privilege of Union with Moses

“and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea”

Significance of “baptism” – immersed, identification, union – symbolic

To bring in close relationship with Moses; his ministry and leadership

3. (:3-4a) Privilege of Spiritual Nourishment – spiritual source – Supernatural Provision

a. (:3) Spiritual Food

“and all ate the same spiritual food”

b. (:4a) Spiritual Drink

“and all drank the same spiritual drink”

4. (:4b) Spiritual Types Fulfilled in Christ

“for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ.”

Here Paul makes the connection between the OT experiences and the spiritual reality involved and the NT experience of the Corinthian believers as the OT types are fulfilled in Christ.

Gil Rugh: Ex. 17 and Num 20 – two instances – at the beginning of their journey in the wilderness and at the end; perhaps the rock was an ongoing source of water

Guzik: Paul is building on a Rabbinical tradition which said Israel was supplied with water by the same rock all through the wilderness, a rock which followed them.

Hodge: This view of the passage makes the apostle responsible for a Jewish fable, and is inconsistent with his divine authority. . . It is not necessary, however, to assume that either the rock or the water out of the rock followed them. The rock that followed them was Christ. The Logos, the manifested Jehovah, who attended the Israelites in their journey, was the Son of God who assumed our nature, and was the Christ.

B. Shocking Rejection of Participation in Spiritual Blessing

1. Extent of the Failure

“Nevertheless, with most of them”

Classic understatement – all but 2 men! Vs. millions

2. Evaluation of Their Spiritual Condition

“God was not well-pleased”

Gil Rugh: God’s sovereign pleasure; context of God’s sovereign work of divine election; Look at word usage in NT:

Ephes. 1:5,9 “kind intention” – according to what pleased His will

Phil. 2:12b “for His good pleasure” – according to what pleases Him

Heb. 10:36-39 “you have need of endurance” – If you don’t do the will of God you won’t receive what is promised; “and if he shrinks back my soul has no pleasure in him”

3. Execution of Severe Judgment

“for they were laid low in the wilderness”

“Spread out; scattered”

Hodge: Would God permit those to perish for whom he had wrought so signal a deliverance, and for whose sake he sacrificed the hosts of Egypt? Yet their carcasses were strewed in the wilderness. It is not enough, therefore, to be recipients of extraordinary favours; it is not enough to begin well. It is only by constant self-denial and vigilance, that the promised reward can be obtained. This is the lesson the apostle intends to inculcate.


A. Value of OT Examples

“Now these things happened as examples for us”

B. Purpose of OT Examples – Guard Against the Lusts of the Flesh

“so that we would not crave evil things as they also craved.”



(Examine how Unbelief lies at the core of each of these manifestations of Rebellion)

A. (:7) Guard Against Idolatry (Ex. 32:1-6)

“Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written, ‘The people sat down to eat and drink, and stood up to play.’”

Cole: The verb translated play suggests sex-play in Hebrew . . . and therefore we are probably to understand drunken orgies.” (commentary on Exodus)

J. Scott Lindsay: Exodus 32 talks about this incident. And it is interesting that of all the things that Paul might have quoted from Ex 32, the one thing he chooses to quote is verse 6, “And the people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play”. Now why quote this? Because of the parallels with the Corinthian situation. The people of Israel were engaging in blatant idolatry, eating and drinking in the presence of a golden calf – an idol – and doing other things as well. God’s anger and judgment against them on that occasion were great. And what were the Corinthians doing? They were insisting on their “right” and freedom to eat and drink food, in an idol temple.

B. (:8) Guard Against Immorality (Num. 25 or Ex. 32?)

“Nor let us act immorally, as some of them did, and twenty-three thousand fell in one day.”

Possible answers to apparent discrepancy in numbers here with 24,000 of Numbers 25:9: (“those who died by the plague were 24,000”)

Hodge: Moses and Paul were accustomed, like most other men, to use round numbers; and they used them when under the influence of inspiration just as they used other familiar forms of statement. Neither intended to speak with numerical exactness, which the occasion did not require. What a wonderful book is the Bible, written at intervals during a period of fifteen hundred years, when such apparitions of inaccuracy as this must be seized upon to impeach its infallibility!

MacArthur: Having just quoted from Ex 32 in vs. 7, this very likely also refers to the incident in Ex 32, not to the incident at Shittim in Nu 25. Apparently 3,000 were killed by the Levites (Ex 32:28) and 20,000 died in the plague (Ex 32:35).

C. (:9) Guard Against Presumption (Num. 21:5-6)

“Nor let us try the Lord, as some of them did, and were destroyed by the serpents.”

D. (:10) Guard Against Discontent (Num. 16:3-41)

“Nor grumble, as some of them did, and were destroyed by the destroyer.”

Look at how this common sin is thrown in here at the same level of importance with the others. Grumbling, murmering, discontent are huge problems. Don’t minimize these. It is an attack of unbelief against the Goodness and Wisdom of God.

Hodge: To murmur is to complain in a rebellious spirit.



A. (:11) Relevance of These OT Examples

1. History Has a Purpose for Us

“Now these things happened to them as an example”

2. Scripture Provides Authoritative Instruction for Us

“and they were written for our instruction”

3. Time Is Running Out for Us

“upon whom the ends of the ages have come”

B. (:12) Central Application – Warning Against Spiritual Overconfidence – Need for Careful, Diligent Pursuit of Holiness

“Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed that he does not fall.”

1. Primary Application to the Unsaved

2. Secondary Application to the Saved

C. (:13) Faithfulness of God Provides for the Perseverance of the Saints

1. No Unique Temptation that God Cannot Defeat = Provides Hope

“No temptation has overtaken you but such as is common to man”

2. Character of God Provides Hope

“God is Faithful”

3. Limitation of Man No Excuse

“who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able”

4. Endurance is Possible and Sovereignly Enabled

“but with the temptation will provide the way of escape also, so that you will be able to endure it.”

Boyer: If Christians once learn the meaning of I Corinthians 10:13 they never again will say, “I couldn’t help it.”