DAVID’S EXEMPLARY GIVING CAMPAIGN TO SUPPORT TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION IN THE CONTEXT OF OVERFLOWING PRAISE AND THANKSGIVING MARKS THE TRANSITION TO THE REIGN OF SOLOMON
August Konkel: vv. 1-9 — This address of David has several distinct emphases: Solomon is the one whom God has chosen; generous provision has been made for all the materials of the temple; the leaders are enthusiastically dedicated to completing the work. David himself has been exemplary in his personal generosity for building the temple. The palace was more than a human project. The term “palace” is only found in late writings; it seems to include all the fortifications on the citadel of Jerusalem. It may have included the Tower of Hananel and the Tower of the Hundred (Neh 3:1). However, the main point is that this palace represented the kingdom of God; it was not for humans. The whole cluster of buildings associated with the royal complex therefore gained a certain sanctity. This task could not be accomplished by one person; it required the complete dedication of all the leaders. Further, Solomon was young and inexperienced. If Solomon was born shortly after the time David conquered Jerusalem, he would have been about thirty years old. Very few can be prepared for the highest levels of executive leadership at that age. It was necessary that Solomon receive complete support, without detraction of competing interests.
Andrew Hill: The “bookends” of King David’s life for the Chronicler are the two great events shaping the worship life of ancient Israel:
– the installation of the ark of the covenant in Jerusalem (chs. 15–16) and
– the preparations for the building of Yahweh’s temple (chs. 28–29).
Both accounts conclude with doxology and contribute purposefully to the recurrent themes of Chronicles as a “biography of God,” a “theology of hope,” a “call to worship,” and “joy.” Not surprisingly, all four remain timely topics for consideration in the church.
Mark Boda: With chapters 28-29 the Chronicler comes to the end of his account of David. The founder of the dynasty has been depicted as one passionate for the worship of Israel at Jerusalem and now hands the rei(g)n over to his son Solomon, who will perfectly fulfill the vision Yahweh gave to David in chapter 17. It is fitting that the Chronicler would close his account of David with the long prayer in 29:10-19 and that this prayer would be followed immediately by David’s exhortation to the assembly to give praise to Yahweh. This summarizes one of the central elements in the Chronicler’s depiction of David – that is, David as catalyst of faithful worship in Israel. Against this brilliant backdrop, all the kings that follow in his line will be evaluated.
J.A. Thompson: Only some concluding aspects of David’s story remain to be recorded:
(1) contributions of the people for the temple building (29:1–9),
(2) David’s prayer of thanksgiving (29:10–19),
(3) Solomon’s accession to the throne (29:20–25), and
(4) the close of David’s reign (29:26–30).
David left the affairs of the kingdom in perfect readiness for his son Solomon to take up his own work.
Jerry Barber: King David gathers the leaders of Israel to pass the torch to Solomon and encourages them to give for the building of the temple. After they give willingly, he worships God.
I. (:1-9) CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE TEMPLE
A. (:1-5) David’s Example of Sacrificial Giving to the Temple Project
“Then King David said to the entire assembly,”
Frederick Mabie: David’s final recorded speech in Chronicles is oriented to the “whole assembly” of Israel (v.1; cf. vv.10, 17–18, 20, 30) and the integral role the community will play in the construction of the Jerusalem temple. David’s opening words declare that the temple is “for the LORD God” (v.1) and thus should have the finest of materials and craftsmanship so that the beauty of God’s holiness is aptly reflected (vv.2–5; cf. 22:5, 14; Ps 29:2). Many of these materials were also used in the construction of the tabernacle during the time of Moses. David is also motivated to facilitate Solomon’s success in the completion of such a monumental project. Note that David’s observation of Solomon’s youth and inexperience (v.1) is echoed by Solomon in his prayer for wisdom (1Ki 3:6–9).
1. (:1) Significant Project –
Contrasting Inexperience of Solomon with Enormity of the Task
a. Inexperience of Solomon
“My son Solomon, whom alone God has chosen,
is still young and inexperienced”
b. Enormity of the Task
“and the work is great;
for the temple is not for man, but for the LORD God.”
J.A. Thompson: It is called here a “palatial structure” to remind the people and Solomon that the true King of Israel was to be the Lord God. The degree to which Solomon and his royal successors were to succeed as kings and Israel was to flourish would depend upon the extent to which they remembered that fact. This is what made the task of temple building so great.
Mark Boda: Although emphasizing that Solomon was clearly the one chosen by God (lest anyone would think from this introduction that he was disqualified from the job), David contrasted the immaturity of Solomon (“young and inexperienced”) with the enormousness of the task (building the Temple “for the Lord God himself”). The structure referred to here is habbirah, “the palace or citadel” (NLT, “Temple”; also found in 29:19), a term that appears to encompass a much larger complex of buildings that included the Temple. The enormousness of the task, however, was not linked by David ultimately to the size of the job but rather to the greatness of the one for whom it was being built. If it was merely for a human king, then the new king was qualified, but because it was for the divine king, “the Lord God himself,” the task was immeasurable. David here offers important theological orientation for the task, even as he lays the foundation for his appeal to the assembly.
2. (:2-5a) Sacrificial Giving of David
“Now with all my ability I have provided for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the bronze for the things of bronze, the iron for the things of iron, and wood for the things of wood, onyx stones and inlaid stones, stones of antimony, and stones of various colors, and all kinds of precious stones, and alabaster in abundance. 3 “And moreover, in my delight in the house of my God, the treasure I have of gold and silver, I give to the house of my God, over and above all that I have already provided for the holy temple, 4 namely, 3,000 talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and 7,000 talents of refined silver, to overlay the walls of the buildings; 5 of gold for the things of gold, and of silver for the things of silver, that is, for all the work done by the craftsmen.”
3. (:5b) Sacred Challenge
“Who then is willing to consecrate himself this day to the LORD?”
Frederick Mabie: David’s speech also indicates that the vast supplies of precious materials and resources he devoted to the temple project (vv.2–4) are supplemented further by significant gifts from his personal treasure (v.5). David’s gifts are a reflection of his devotion to God and the place that will be built in honor of his God (note the triple reference of “the temple of my God,” vv.2, 3 [2x]). In the light of David’s abundant personal gifts to the temple project, he challenges the congregation to follow his example—expressed as personal choice to show devotion to God (“who is willing to consecrate himself today to the LORD?” v.5; cf. Ro 12:1).
August Konkel: David’s example is a challenge to the leaders to give equally generously, filling their hands for the work of the temple (v. 5). This expression is typically used for the dedication of priests. David has given according to his ability; the people accordingly should have an undivided desire to complete this task. Thus David is asking for a consecration similar to that of priestly dedication to finish this task (Snijders: 305). The officials responded accordingly with vast amounts of wealth. Five thousand talents of gold may be compared with the thirty talents of gold that Hezekiah paid to Sennacherib (2Kings 18:14), a tribute from the country.
B. (:6-9) Voluntary Sacrificial Contributions from Israelite Leaders
1. (:6-8) Magnanimous Response of the Israelite Leaders
“Then the rulers of the fathers’ households, and the princes of the tribes of Israel, and the commanders of thousands and of hundreds, with the overseers over the king’s work, offered willingly; 7 and for the service for the house of God they gave 5,000 talents and 10,000 darics of gold, and 10,000 talents of silver, and 18,000 talents of brass, and 100,000 talents of iron. 8 And whoever possessed precious stones gave them to the treasury of the house of the LORD, in care of Jehiel the Gershonite.”
Mark Boda: The gifts were not only given “willingly” and “wholeheartedly,” they were also enormous. The Chronicler depicts a community that had fully embraced this project and was able to outdo even David himself. The scene ends on a tone of joy as both people and king (David) rejoice over this response.
2. (:9) Mutual Rejoicing
“Then the people rejoiced because they had offered so willingly,
for they made their offering to the LORD with a whole heart,
and King David also rejoiced greatly.”
Frederick Mabie: In the light of David’s challenge to the people to follow his example of abundant generosity (v.5), the leaders of the Israelite community respond with their own display of generosity toward the Jerusalem temple project. The Chronicler emphasizes the “willing response” (v.9; cf. “willingly,” v.6; “freely and wholeheartedly,” v.9) of the community leaders and the resulting joy of both people and king (v.9). Note that the focus of the leaders’ giving is Godward—“toward the work on the temple of God” (v.7); “to the LORD” (v.9).’
Iain Duguid: Some giving can be for self-glorification (cf. Matt. 6:2), but here it is “freely to the Lord.” The parallels with the description of generous giving for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:1–7; 35:4–9, 20–29) are yet another way in which the temple continues the Mosaic traditions associated with the tabernacle. It is a privilege to give to God, and when this is done by a whole congregation, the result is that all “rejoice.” Worship and giving is not just a matter of duty but a “joy” (cf. 1 Chron. 12:40; 15:25; 16:10, 31; etc.).
Andrew Hill: Several themes important to the Chronicler are knit together in the response of the Israelites to David’s speech. The first is that of unity among the leadership of the various Hebrew administrative structures. The clan and tribal leaders, political officials, and military officers are of a single mind in responding to the king’s challenge to give to the temple building fund (29:6a; the same leaders registered by name previously in ch. 27). A second emphasis is that of a charitable attitude—they “give willingly” (29:6b). It is a proven leadership principle that generosity needs an example (e.g., note how often the “matching gift” of a donor is used to spur philanthropic giving). The open-handed giving of Israelite leaders serves as an inducement for a similar response on the part of the people. Sadly, this kind of generosity is not always seen in later Hebrew kingship (e.g., Elijah rebuked King Ahab for his greed, 1 Kings 21:18–19; Micah condemned leaders who rendered judgment for a bribe, Mic. 3:11). . .
One thing is clear: The Israelites honor God with their wealth since it all belongs to him anyway (Prov. 3:9; cf. Job 41:11). . .
The voluntary generosity of leaders is contagious in a couple of ways (29:9).
(1) The modeling of unselfish behavior prompts similar acts of generosity—reminding us of Paul’s exhortation to “give generously … to the needs of others” (Rom. 12:8).
(2) The lavish gifts prompt both king and people to rejoice (1 Chron. 29:9a, c).
This spirit of rejoicing characterizes the major religious events reported in Chronicles (cf. 12:40). In fact, the Chronicler has spliced together three closely related themes that are somewhat paradigmatic of Israel’s relationship with God: a pure heart (cf. 28:9) that prompts generous giving, which in turn results in joy.
J.A. Thompson: That the bringing of gifts to the Lord caused rejoicing is interesting. It implies that the people gave freely and wholeheartedly (cf. 2 Cor 9:7). J. G. McConville has written, “People are closest to God-likeness in self-giving, and the nearer they approach God-likeness the more genuinely and rightly they become capable of rejoicing.” As David had learned vividly and painfully, “The search for true happiness cannot be along the path of self-gratification.”
John Schultz: The main point is that the contribution made by the people was substantial, but it is assumed that the people’s contribution amounted to a total that was smaller than David’s personal gift. The total amount contributed caused both people and king to rejoice greatly, since it was an indication of a willingness to give sacrificially.
II. (:10-20) COMMUNICATION OF PRAISE IN DAVID’S BLESSING AND SUPPLICATION
August Konkel: The blessing of David is the climax of his history as told in Chronicles. The leaders and officials are united with Solomon for the task of temple building. The proper response is a prayer of joyful faith, expressing humility and submission before God. The prayer draws on a rich liturgy of worship. Much of what is expressed here can be found in other biblical texts, but this prayer more likely draws on a common heritage of praise. Several themes are prominent:
(1) the people of Israel are sojourners, even within the secure boundaries of the kingdom;
(2) the kingdom belongs to God alone; and
(3) the people have freely given of themselves to God.
If Israel now enjoys an unprecedented prosperity, it is testimony to the truth that all things come from God (1 Chron 29:14). David prays for their minds to remain so devoted that the impulse of every thought may forever be directed toward God. David’s closing petition is that the heart of Solomon may never be compromised in his commitment to this great work.
Andrew Hill: David’s prayer of thanks for God’s enabling him to complete the necessary preparations to build the temple is one of ten royal prayers in Chronicles. According to Throntveit, the royal prayers are an important vehicle for themes enhancing the Chronicler’s theology of hope, especially the ideas of human inability, the power of God, and the effectiveness of prayer.
A. (:10-12) Doxology
“So David blessed the LORD in the sight of all the assembly; and David said, ‘Blessed art Thou, O LORD God of Israel our father, forever and ever. 11 Thine, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, indeed everything that is in the heavens and the earth; Thine is the dominion, O LORD, and Thou dost exalt Thyself as head over all. 12 Both riches and honor come from Thee, and Thou dost rule over all, and in Thy hand is power and might; and it lies in Thy hand to make great, and to strengthen everyone.”
J.A. Thompson: The presentation of such a wealth of gifts to the Lord called forth David’s praise and thanksgiving to the Lord, who is the giver of every good and perfect gift in the first place. The words translated “praise” and “praised” are from the verb bārak, “bless.” Usually it is God who blesses us, but the word is used of praise to God elsewhere in Neh 8:6; Ps 145:21.
The first part of this prayer has found its way into Christian liturgy as the doxology appended to the Lord’s Prayer: “Yours, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory,” although this ascription of praise here adds “and the majesty and the splendor.” As Allen has noted, David’s prayer “ransacks the theological dictionary” for terms expressing God’s sovereign and boundless power and regal grandeur. It ascribes to Yahweh the possession of everything in heaven and earth. His is the kingdom, and he is exalted as head over all (cf. 2 Chr 20:6). Wealth and honor come from him. He is ruler over all things, and in his hands are the strength and power to exalt and give strength to all.
Andrew Hill: The key theme of the doxology is the eternal kingdom of God (29:11d). David equates God’s kingdom with the entirety of the created order (29:11c, 12a) and acknowledges that temporal human kingdoms (including his own) can only survive and thrive as they concede all power and strength and honor and wealth belong to God alone.
John Schultz: In an effort to describe the indescribable, David mentions particularly God’s greatness, power, glory, majesty and splendor. The Hebrew word for “greatness” is geduwlah, which elsewhere is rendered with “recognition,” as in: “‘What honor and recognition has Mordecai received for this?’ the king asked.” “Power” is the rendering of the Hebrew word gebuwrah, which can be rendered “victory” as in “Moses replied: ‘It is not the sound of victory, it is not the sound of defeat; it is the sound of singing that I hear.’” “Glory” is the translation of the Hebrew word tiph’arah, which is derived from a word meaning “ornament.” We find it for the first time in Scripture in the description of Aaron’s garment as high priest. “Make sacred garments for your brother Aaron, to give him dignity and honor.” “Majesty” translates the Hebrew word netsach, which stands for a bright goal toward which one travels. The word is first used in the verse: “He who is the Glory of Israel does not lie or change his mind; for he is not a man, that he should change his mind.” “Majesty” in Hebrew is howd, which is used in the transfer of authority from Moses to Joshua, when God says: “Take Joshua son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay your hand on him. Have him stand before Eleazar the priest and the entire assembly and commission him in their presence. Give him some of your authority so the whole Israelite community will obey him.” Finally, “splendor” is another word for “kingdom,” mamlakah in Hebrew. It is used in describing Nimrod, whose kingdom(s) were Babylon, Erech, Akkad and Calneh, in Shinar.
In all this David makes an effort to praise God for who He is, recognizing that he is unable to do this in a sufficient and satisfactory manner.
B. (:13-16) Thanksgiving and Praise
1. (:13) Response of Thanksgiving and Praise
“Now therefore, our God, we thank Thee, and praise Thy glorious name.”
2. (:14-15) Recognition of Humble Status
“But who am I and who are my people that we should be able to offer as generously as this? For all things come from Thee, and from Thy hand we have given Thee. 15 For we are sojourners before Thee, and tenants, as all our fathers were; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope.”
J.A. Thompson: The terms translated “aliens” and “strangers” frequently were used of the patriarchs (Gen 17:8; 21:23; 23:4; 1 Chr 16:19; cf. Heb 11:13–14). They spoke of persons without property and therefore without security of their own who lived in an area only by the good graces of its citizens. Like widows and orphans, they were in need of protection (Lev 19:10, 33–34; Deut 10:18–19). Even after possessing the land, Israel was to have this attitude about themselves, remembering that the land really belonged to the Lord (Lev 25:23). In his very nature man is only a resident alien and a sojourner on earth. His days are like a shadow and without hope. Not even the wealth and security that had been granted to David would alter man’s lot (cf. Job 7:6; 8:9; Ps 144:4). D. J. Estes sees in this verse an advance toward a concept of a spiritual pilgrimage. The life of the foreigner serves as the analogy to the life of the pious man in a world estranged from God (1 Pet 2:11).
3. (:16) Realization that Their Abundant Gifts Originated from God’s Grace
“O LORD our God, all this abundance that we have provided to build Thee a house for Thy holy name, it is from Thy hand, and all is Thine.”
Andrew Hill: Typically, a song of thanksgiving opens with a statement of the worshiper’s gratitude (29:13), moves to a narration of some past experience of God’s gracious help in a time of need (29:14–15), and concludes by confessing Yahweh’s graciousness and goodness (29:16).
C. (:17-19) Supplication
1. (:17) Basis For Petition = God’s Insight into Motivations
a. Integrity of David’s Voluntary Giving
“Since I know, O my God, that Thou triest the heart and delightest in uprightness, I, in the integrity of my heart, have willingly offered all these things;”
Iain Duguid: That God “test[s] the heart” and knows the genuine willingness of David and the people is not a reason to be fearful or, alternatively, self-congratulatory; instead it becomes the basis for two petitions. Matching the previous order and content of the charge to the people to “observe and seek out all the commandments of the Lord your God” and then to Solomon to “serve him with a whole heart” (28:8, 9), the petitions are, first, that God might enable current “purposes and thoughts in the hearts of [the] people” to continue and, second, that Solomon may be given “a whole heart . . . [to] keep your commandments.” All of the preparations to date are inadequate if the people and king do not continue to serve God wholeheartedly. The call to obey is tied together with God’s enabling. While “every intention [and] thoughts of [human] hearts” may be “evil” (Gen. 6:5 has same Hb. phrase as in 1 Chron. 29:18; also 28:9, “plan and thought”), by God’s grace and in prayer they can become pleasing.
Again the Chronicler affirms the place of the Davidic king, set within a context of priority to God and the willing service of all the people, centered in the building of God’s “palace” (cf. 29:1). His hearers would be well aware of the subsequent failures of people and kings, but the inclusion of this prayer as the final words of David is an encouragement for them to make it their own humble and heartfelt prayer in their present.
b. Integrity of Israel’s Voluntary Giving
“so now with joy I have seen Thy people, who are present here, make their offerings willingly to Thee.”
2. (:18-19) The Bottom Line of the Petition = Heart to Obey God
a. (:18) Heart for God for the People of Israel
“O LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, our fathers, preserve this forever in the intentions of the heart of Thy people, and direct their heart to Thee;”
b. (:19) Heart for God for the King Solomon
“and give to my son Solomon a perfect heart to keep Thy commandments, Thy testimonies, and Thy statutes, and to do them all, and to build the temple, for which I have made provision.”
Andrew Hill: Thus, perception of our “pilgrim” status as the faithful of God fans gratitude that expresses itself in continual praise as we become shareholders in the divine kingdom despite our lack of entitlement. David’s insight comes from his firsthand experience as an “alien,” first as a fugitive from King Saul (1 Sam. 21:10) and later as a fugitive from his own son Absalom (2 Sam. 15:14). The undeserved goodness of God not only sparks gratitude but also prompts the emotive response of joy. Joy, permitted its complete work, issues in loyalty or continued obedience to God.
The Chronicler’s “praise formula” may be diagrammed something like this:
“pilgrim” status → gratitude → joy → loyalty
This is not, however, a simplistic and mechanical cause-and-effect relationship between the Creator and his creatures. God cannot be manipulated in this way. Rather, it is the result of “wholehearted devotion” to God (29:19)—the mystery of a “synergistic” faith relationship between a people called to obey God and a God who keeps their hearts loyal to him (29:18).
J.A. Thompson: David’s special supplication was that the Lord himself would establish a perfect heart in both Israel and Solomon so that God’s commandments might be kept and the temple built. It is noteworthy that the keeping of the law is set alongside the building of the temple. These two were indissolubly bound together. A temple without wholehearted devotion to the law was an empty gesture.
D. (:20) Response
“Then David said to all the assembly, ‘Now bless the LORD your God.’ And all the assembly blessed the LORD, the God of their fathers, and bowed low and did homage to the LORD and to the king.”
III. (:21-25) CORONATION OF SOLOMON
A. (:21-22a) Sacrifices, Offerings and Joyful Celebration
1. (:21) Sacrifices and Offerings
“And on the next day they made sacrifices to the LORD and offered burnt offerings to the LORD, 1,000 bulls, 1,000 rams and 1,000 lambs, with their libations and sacrifices in abundance for all Israel.”
2. (:22a) Joyful Celebration
“So they ate and drank that day before the LORD with great gladness.”
Frederick Mabie: In the light of David’s challenge to the people to follow his example of abundant generosity (v.5), the leaders of the Israelite community respond with their own display of generosity toward the Jerusalem temple project. The Chronicler emphasizes the “willing response” (v.9; cf. “willingly,” v.6; “freely and wholeheartedly,” v.9) of the community leaders and the resulting joy of both people and king (v.9). Note that the focus of the leaders’ giving is Godward—“toward the work on the temple of God” (v.7); “to the LORD” (v.9).
B. (:22b) Formal Public Installation of Solomon and Zadok
“And they made Solomon the son of David king a second time,
and they anointed him as ruler for the LORD and Zadok as priest.”
August Konkel: The anointing of Zadok at the time of Solomon might be related to Zadok receiving a new office when Solomon began to reign. The role of king and priest were central to the preaching of Zechariah; Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel the Davidic descendant were the leaders in resurrecting the temple in Jerusalem (Zech 3:1–4:14). They were the “sons of oil” (4:14 MT; divinely anointed) to stand before the Lord of all the earth. In the Damascus Document of Qumran times, reference is repeatedly made to the anointed of Aaron and Israel (CD 12.23; 14.19; 19.10). The documents of the community anticipate two messiahs or anointed leaders, one from the priestly order and another of the royal order. The Chronicler may have had a similar concept in mind.
J.A. Thompson: The Chronicler presents not one but two great kings as the ideal for Israel. The one was David, the warrior-king, who subdued the enemies of the people of God and established a secure domain. He was now passing, and the other, Solomon, was taking his place. Solomon was a man of peace who would build up the prosperity of the nation. These two things together—victory over enemies and a reign of peace—are both essential. For Christian readers these two ideals are fulfilled in the one man, Jesus Christ. He conquers all his foes but at the same time establishes a reign of peace for his own people. In this the tandem of David and Solomon are a type of Christ.
C. (:23-24) Successful Initial Reign of Solomon
1. (:23) Prospered by the Lord and Obeyed by the People
“Then Solomon sat on the throne of the LORD as king instead of David his father; and he prospered, and all Israel obeyed him.”
2. (:24) Pledged Allegiance by Israel’s Leaders
“And all the officials, the mighty men, and also all the sons of King David pledged allegiance to King Solomon.”
Andrew Hill: The record of the pledge of loyalty by David’s mercenary guard and the other princes (29:24) is a significant political datum. The stability of the Davidic throne was twice challenged by rivals within the royal family: by Absalom (2 Sam. 15–18) and by Adonijah (1 Kings 1). Solomon knows that such an oath of allegiance is crucial to the smooth transfer of power in the aftermath of Adonijah’s attempted coup. It is significant that the prince (i.e., Solomon), with the support of David’s mercenary guard, is eventually installed as David’s successor.
D. (:25) Divine Exaltation of Solomon
“And the LORD highly exalted Solomon in the sight of all Israel, and bestowed on him royal majesty which had not been on any king before him in Israel.”
Iain Duguid: At the very beginning of Solomon’s reign we are alerted to his subsequent unequaled prosperity and success, but this is not to be ascribed simply to Solomon’s abilities. The similar summary in 1 Kings 2:12 includes “and his kingdom was firmly established,” repeated in 2:46 after Solomon ruthlessly ensures the death of potential opponents! The Chronicler, in contrast, speaks of how “all Israel obeyed him,” including leaders, and insists this was due to the Lord’s actions: “The Lord made Solomon very great in the sight of all Israel and bestowed on him such [unequaled] royal majesty.”
IV. (:26-30) CONCLUSION OF DAVID’S REIGN
A. (:26-27) Extent and Duration of David’s Reign
“Now David the son of Jesse reigned over all Israel. 27 And the period which he reigned over Israel was forty years; he reigned in Hebron seven years and in Jerusalem thirty-three years.”
Pulpit Commentary: These verses contain last words respecting David’s reign, its extent and its length; respecting his death and age, and the succession of Solomon; and respecting the sources of the history of himself, his reign, his people, and other countries. The words of this verse, not indeed hard to follow here, but marking the close instead of the commencement or career of David’s reign over all Israel, are paralleled by the earlier passage, … 1 Chronicles 18:14; … 2 Samuel 8:15.
B. (:28) Summary of David’s Reign
“Then he died in a ripe old age, full of days, riches and honor;
and his son Solomon reigned in his place.”
Andrew Hill: The reference to Solomon as David’s successor (29:28b) is both a statement of simple fact and a subtle reminder that in Solomon God has fulfilled his promise to the house of David through Nathan the prophet (2 Sam. 7; 1 Chron. 17). The Chronicler essentially tells two related stories in closing the book on David’s career: the subplot of David’s greatness as Israel’s ideal king and the main plot of God faithfulness as Israel’s “king maker.”
C. (:29-30) Historical Record of David’s Reign and International Influence
“Now the acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the chronicles of Samuel the seer, in the chronicles of Nathan the prophet, and in the chronicles of Gad the seer, 30 with all his reign, his power, and the circumstances which came on him, on Israel, and on all the kingdoms of the lands.”
Frederick Mabie: The Chronicler’s closing remarks on the reign of King David reflect God’s blessings on him through a long life (cf. Ps 91:16; Pr 3:16), wealth (recall 1Ch 29:2–4), and honor. Recall that David’s earlier prayer attributed such blessings of wealth, honor, and strength to God’s goodness (cf. 29:12). The Chronicler’s reference to the “kingdoms of all the other lands” (v.30) is likely a reference to David’s victories over nations to the east, west, south, and north summarized in chs. 18–20.